Supplements and functional foods are ideally part of an overall wellness lifestyle that encourages good eating habits and body composition. When put into that context, its important to understand how all those healthy ingredients contribute to balanced nutrient intake. Lets examine several nutrient groups and how they contribute to the cause.
First, what is body composition? People often mistake it for being the percentage of body fat a person has. But really it is the sum of the body fat plus everything else (called free fat mass, or FFM), which includes muscles, bones, organs, skin, water, blood and other things. The goal is to have a healthy percentage of body fat balanced out by the presence of muscle.
When it comes to weight management, body composition is a much more useful concept than weight because you can lose weight without losing fat, and you can gain weight without gaining muscle. Improving body composition happens in two ways: build muscle and lose fat (without losing muscle). Different nutrient groups weigh in differently here.
Protein first. Its key benefits address both goals. Protein builds and maintains muscle mass and also promotes satiety, helping to curtail calorie intake. Research has shown that 10 to 30 percent more calories are eaten during a high-carb meal than a high-protein meal. Satiety after the meal has also been shown to be greater with high protein, and fewer calories are eaten during later meals. With an ongoing high-protein diet, satiety is continuously higher than with normal protein intake. There has been an effort to show a link between protein-induced satiety and increases in satiety hormones, but research in this area has been ambivalent.
Protein is known to increase energy expenditure (a.k.a thermogenesis), a cornerstone of weight management. This is because compared to carbohydrates and fats, proteins require a lot of energy to digest. The amino acid profile of the protein also plays a role in how difficult it is to break down. For example, histidine and cysteine take 50 to 75 percent more energy to break down than other amino acids.
The ability to affect muscle building is also specific to each protein. For example, casein is not water soluble and forms a gel in the stomach. This leads to slower digestion and a quick feeling of fullness, but also a slower feeding of amino acids into the body. This is not your bet for post-workout muscle repair, but great for preventing long-term muscle breakdown and reducing calorie intake. On the other hand, whey is highly soluble and moves into the small intestine for absorption quickly; clinical research has shown that whey stimulates protein synthesis shortly after ingestion, but that its effects are short-lived.
Amino acids themselves may also have a hand in promoting satiety. There is some evidence that elevated blood levels provide feedback to the brain that results in suppression of feelings of hunger; however, this has not been shown in humans.
On the other side of the macronutrient spectrum, fats and fatty acids have been investigated for their effect on body composition. While fats are the least satiating of the macronutrients, researchers studied whether different fats caused different levels of satiety. Oils high in linoleic acid (omega-6), gamma-linoleic acid or oleic acid (omega-9) were used to replace typical fat sources and were consumed by overweight subjects for two weeks. Satiety was significantly higher for high-oleic acid oil following the meal than for the other two treatments, although overall satiety and caloric intake over the week was not affected.
A related study illuminated that the satiety effects of some fatty acids could be specific to the individual consumer. Subjects who could taste linoleic acid were separated from those who could not (a phenomenon similar to individual sensitivity to monosodium glutamate, or MSG). Linoleic acid-fortified ice cream was offered to both groups until satiation. Those who could taste linoleic acid stopped eating ice cream as a function of feeling more satiated, while there was no such correlation for those who couldnt taste it (there was no difference in perception of the tastiness of the ice cream between groups). This suggests linoleic acid triggers a satiety response in those who can taste it. However, more research is needed to elucidate this mechanism and its potential application.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) drew interest after promising results in an animal model for considerably reducing body fat. However, these results do not seem to carry over into humans. A review covering eight human studies noted that only two showed weight loss, and there was no relationship between intake level and weight loss. Further, animal studies documented undesirable side effects such as insulin resistance and decreased plasma leptin.
Carbohydrates are an important source of energy and should deliver the highest percentage of daily calories, even with a relatively high-protein diet. Carbs are the easiest fuel for the body and are even more necessary if moderate or intense exercise is part of the daily lifestyle. The caveat, of course, is that they should be nutrient dense and not refined.
There are many ways to balance the amounts of proteins, carbohydrates and fats that together will help achieve and maintain a healthy body composition, depending on the individuals goals and genetic makeup. A last bit of research with a surprising twist: a JAMA review of popular diets found that the most successful diet was the one you can stay on.
Learn more about weight management from Risa Schulman, Ph.D., during theTackling Weight Management With Nutrition Workshop on Tuesday, Sept. 26 at 9 a.m. atSupplySide West in Las Vegas. The Workshop is underwritten by NNB.
Risa Schulman, Ph.D., is a functional food and dietary supplement expert, focusing on sound science, claims and marketing. She is president of Tap~Root, a consulting company focusing on health claim substantiation, product development and business strategy. Drawing on 20 years of experienceincluding the leadership teams of POM Wonderful, Solgar Vitamins and Mars Botanical (a division of Mars Inc.)Schulman and her team assist prominent and pioneering food and dietary supplement companies, ingredient suppliers and companies shifting into these spaces with straddling the science-regulatory-marketing challenges of product development and launch. Schulman also serves investment bankers and science advisory boards.
- Weight Management - Terrebonne General Medical Center - May 20th, 2019
- Weight Management - UChicago Medicine - May 19th, 2019
- Jersey Medical Weight Loss Center: Weight Loss Physicians ... - May 17th, 2019
- Carolina Weight Loss Institute - April 30th, 2019
- Advanced Medical Weight Loss & Wellness Center in Las ... - April 10th, 2019
- Weight Management - Fort HealthCare - April 10th, 2019
- Achieve Your Goals with This Weight Management Checklist ... - April 6th, 2019
- Nurse-Led Weight Management Programs - ausmed.com - March 21st, 2019
- Essay on The Importance of Weight Management - 594 Words - March 21st, 2019
- Weight Management - Regional Health Orthopedic & Specialty ... - March 8th, 2019
- Weight Management - MedicineNet - February 9th, 2019
- CORE Weight Management - Wellness Pet Food - January 29th, 2019
- Parkinson's Foundation: Better Lives. Together. - January 23rd, 2019
- Weight Management | Summit Medical Group - January 23rd, 2019
- Weight Management Services - umms.org - January 23rd, 2019
- Weight Management Program - The LIFT - January 23rd, 2019
- Weight Management - Health & Nutrition - Youngevity - January 23rd, 2019
- North Carolina Weight & Wellness: Obesity Medicine ... - January 14th, 2019
- Weight Management Center | Wake Forest Baptist Health - January 2nd, 2019
- Weight Management | University of Maryland Medical Center - January 2nd, 2019
- Weight Management Program | NYU Langone Health - January 2nd, 2019
- Weight Management | Office of Work-Life at Columbia University - January 2nd, 2019
- Weight Loss Centers in Washington - Yelp - December 23rd, 2018
- Delta Medical Weight Management Center - dmwmc.com - October 30th, 2018
- Weight Management for Your Life: Ten Steps to Prepare You ... - September 29th, 2018
- Weight Loss Management Center at UWMC - Roosevelt | UW ... - September 28th, 2018
- Weight Loss | Washington University Physicians - September 28th, 2018
- Weight Management Resources - Verywell Fit - September 28th, 2018
- Plainfield NJ Family Physician Doctors - Weight Management ... - August 30th, 2018
- Weight Loss Specialist | Weight Loss Coach | ACE - August 20th, 2018
- SmartFitWeightLoss.com - August 5th, 2018
- Weight Management Olympia Compounding Pharmacy - April 6th, 2018
- Medical Weight Loss Clinic | Medical Weight Management ... - March 13th, 2018
- Weight Management | Reading Hospital - March 13th, 2018
- Weight Management Louisville, Kentucky (KY), Norton Healthcare - March 13th, 2018
- Center for Weight & Wellness - Lifespan - March 13th, 2018
- MUSC Health Weight Management Center | Charleston SC - February 27th, 2018
- Weight Management - County of Sonoma, California - February 5th, 2018
- Weight Management - dTERRA Product Line | dTERRA ... - February 5th, 2018
- Weight Management Program - NYP.org - January 3rd, 2018
- Weight Management Resources - Verywell - December 28th, 2017
- Weight Management-Topic Overview - WebMD - December 1st, 2017
- The Institute for Weight Management - Hackensack, NJ - November 10th, 2017
- How Avocado Can Help with Weight Management - October 13th, 2017
- Weight Management | Compounding Pharmacy - Absolute Pharmacy - September 20th, 2017
- Can ventolin inhaler cause weight loss - Ventolin expectorant capsule price philippines - Laughlin Entertainer - August 27th, 2017
- Veterans' lives, health honored at wellness event in Butler - New Castle News - August 27th, 2017
- Healthy eating the best way to lose weight - Tahlequah Daily Press - August 27th, 2017
- Weight-loss firm makes apparent Stamford exit - The Advocate - August 27th, 2017
- Get fit: The 5 best exercises for fat loss - Daily Commercial - August 24th, 2017
- Reimagining the Weight Loss Category - Natural Products INSIDER - August 24th, 2017
- These Are The Best Foods For Weight Loss - Huffington Post Australia - August 24th, 2017
- 5 local resources to help control diabetes - Twin Falls Times-News - August 20th, 2017
- Weight not a factor as energy dense foods appear to up cancer risk - FoodNavigator.com - August 18th, 2017
- Infrared Sauna Benefits Include Pain Management, Weight Loss - Metro US - August 18th, 2017
- The best exercise for weight loss, according to science - NEWS.com.au - August 13th, 2017
- Family Health News Has Positive Experience at Weight ... - Benzinga - Benzinga - August 11th, 2017
- Lifestyle-modification programs for weight management in Arab states lack in effectiveness - Medical Xpress - August 10th, 2017
- Exercise as a Weight-Loss Strategy - New York Times - August 9th, 2017
- Research Behind Top Weight Management Ingredients - Natural Products INSIDER - August 9th, 2017
- Lifestyle-modification programs for weight management in Arab states lack in effectiveness - Gears Of Biz - August 9th, 2017
- Diet Soda Linked to Weight Gain, Not Weight Loss - Olive Oil Times - Olive Oil Times - August 9th, 2017
- The 15-Minute Cardio Workout Perfect for Beginners Trying to Lose Weight - Shape Magazine - August 9th, 2017
- Weight Management Supplements | eBay - August 7th, 2017
- An easy, healthy way to control your weight - Thegardenisland.com - August 7th, 2017
- Newly Published Study Shows Supplementation Of Capsicum Extract Helps Increase Metabolic Rate - Markets Insider - August 7th, 2017
- Elicina Participates in Successful Weight Management, Sports ... - Benzinga - August 3rd, 2017
- Ask a Specialist: How Weight Loss Surgery Can Treat Type 2 Diabetes - KHON2 - August 3rd, 2017
- Diet Doc Offers Customized Weight Loss Solutions Amid Mediterranean Diet Doubts - GlobeNewswire (press release) - August 3rd, 2017
- UFC willing to add new ABC weight classes 'when the time is right' - MMAmania.com - August 3rd, 2017
- Asthma inhaler weight loss - Ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate side effects - Van Wert independent - July 11th, 2017
- Weight Management Clinic Scarborough - Weight Management ... - July 7th, 2017
- Conversation Cards a Useful Tool in Pediatric Weight Management - Newswise (press release) - July 7th, 2017
- 7 ways to follow a low-carb diet the right way - Today.com - July 7th, 2017
- Apple Cider Vinegar Weight Loss - ACV Weight Loss - Woman's Day - WomansDay.com (blog) - July 6th, 2017
- Nolvadex for steroid users - Diabex side effects weight loss - Longboat Key News - July 6th, 2017
- VIVUS Settles with Teva on Weight Management Drug Generic - Zacks.com - July 6th, 2017
- Weight Management Ingredients - Natural Products INSIDER - July 5th, 2017
- Acai berry cancer - Acai berry weight loss cleanse - Antioch Herald - July 4th, 2017
- The Role of Meal Replacements in Weight Loss - TAPinto.net - July 4th, 2017