Obesity and Cancer Fact Sheet – National Cancer Institute


Posted: September 2, 2018 at 5:41 pm

Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2013; 309(1):71-82.

Kitahara CM, Flint AJ, Berrington de Gonzalez A, et al. Association between class III obesity (BMI of 40-59 kg/m2) and mortality: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies. PLoS Medicine 2014; 11(7):e1001673.

National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2015: With Special Feature on Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. Hyattsville, MD. 2016.

Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Lawman HG, et al. Trends in obesity prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988-1994 through 2013-2014. JAMA 2016; 315(21):2292-2299.

Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA 2014; 311(8):806-814.

Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, et al. Body Fatness and Cancer--Viewpoint of the IARC Working Group. New England Journal of Medicine 2016; 375(8):794-798. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsr1606602.

Setiawan VW, Yang HP, Pike MC, et al. Type I and II endometrial cancers: have they different risk factors? Journal of Clinical Oncology 2013; 31(20):2607-2618.

Dougan MM, Hankinson SE, Vivo ID, et al. Prospective study of body size throughout the life-course and the incidence of endometrial cancer among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. International Journal of Cancer 2015; 137(3):625-37.

Hoyo C, Cook MB, Kamangar F, et al. Body mass index in relation to oesophageal and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas: a pooled analysis from the International BEACON Consortium. International Journal of Epidemiology 2012; 41(6):1706-1718.

Chen Y, Liu L, Wang X, et al. Body mass index and risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of a population with more than ten million from 24 prospective studies. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2013; 22(8):1395-1408.

Chen Y, Wang X, Wang J, Yan Z, Luo J. Excess body weight and the risk of primary liver cancer: an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies. European Journal of Cancer 2012; 48(14):2137-2145.

Campbell PT, Newton CC, Freedman ND, et al. Body mass index, waist circumference, diabetes, and risk of liver cancer for U.S. adults. Cancer Research 2016; 76(20):6076-6083.

Wang F, Xu Y. Body mass index and risk of renal cell cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of published cohort studies. International Journal of Cancer 2014; 135(7):1673-86.

Sanfilippo KM, McTigue KM, Fidler CJ, et al. Hypertension and obesity and the risk of kidney cancer in 2 large cohorts of US men and women. Hypertension 2014; 63(5):934-41.

Wallin A, Larsson SC. Body mass index and risk of multiple myeloma: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. European Journal of Cancer 2011; 47(11):1606-1615.

Niedermaier T, Behrens G, Schmid D, et al. Body mass index, physical activity, and risk of adult meningioma and glioma: A meta-analysis. Neurology 2015; 85(15):1342-1350.

Genkinger JM, Spiegelman D, Anderson KE, et al. A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies of anthropometric factors and pancreatic cancer risk. International Journal of Cancer 2011; 129(7):1708-1717.

Ma Y, Yang Y, Wang F, et al. Obesity and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review of prospective studies. PLoS One 2013; 8(1):e53916.

World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research. Continuous Update Project Report: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Gallbladder Cancer. 2015. Available at http://www.wcrf.org/sites/default/files/Gallbladder-Cancer-2015-Report.pdf.

Li L, Gan Y, Li W, Wu C, Lu Z. Overweight, obesity and the risk of gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancers: A meta-analysis of observational studies. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2016; 24(8):1786-1802.

Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M, Heller RF, Zwahlen M. Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 2008; 371(9612):569-578.

Munsell MF, Sprague BL, Berry DA, Chisholm G, Trentham-Dietz A. Body mass index and breast cancer risk according to postmenopausal estrogen-progestin use and hormone receptor status. Epidemiologic Reviews 2014; 36:114-136.

Brinton LA, Cook MB, McCormack V, et al. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer: male breast cancer pooling project results. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2014; 106(3):djt465.

Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer. Ovarian cancer and body size: individual participant meta-analysis including 25,157 women with ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies. PLoS Medicine 2012; 9(4):e1001200.

Kitahara CM, McCullough ML, Franceschi S, et al. Anthropometric factors and thyroid cancer risk by histological subtype: Pooled analysis of 22 prospective studies. Thyroid 2016; 26(2):306-318.

Gregor MF, Hotamisligil GS. Inflammatory mechanisms in obesity. Annual Review of Immunology 2011; 29:415-445.

Randi G, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C. Gallbladder cancer worldwide: geographical distribution and risk factors. International Journal of Cancer 2006; 118(7):1591-1602.

Bishayee A. The role of inflammation and liver cancer. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2014; 816:401-435.

Gallagher EJ, LeRoith D. Obesity and diabetes: The increased risk of cancer and cancer-related mortality. Physiological Reviews 2015; 95(3):727-748.

Seo BR, Bhardwaj P, Choi S. Obesity-dependent changes in interstitial ECM mechanics promote breast tumorigenesis. Science Translational Medicine 2015; 7(301):301ra130.

Roberts DL, Dive C, Renehan AG. Biological mechanisms linking obesity and cancer risk: new perspectives. Annual Review of Medicine 2010; 61:301316.

Arnold M, Pandeya N, Byrnes G, et al. Global burden of cancer attributable to high body-mass index in 2012: a population-based study. Lancet Oncology 2015; 16(1):36-46.

Whiteman DC, Wilson LF. The fractions of cancer attributable to modifiable factors: A global review. Cancer Epidemiology 2016; 44:203-221.

Keum N, Greenwood DC, Lee DH, et al. Adult weight gain and adiposity-related cancers: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2015; 107(2). pii: djv088.

Tee MC, Cao Y, Warnock GL, Hu FB, Chavarro JE. Effect of bariatric surgery on oncologic outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Surgical Endoscopy 2013; 27(12):4449-4456.

Neuhouser ML, Aragaki AK, Prentice RL, et al. Overweight, obesity, and postmenopausal invasive breast cancer risk: A secondary analysis of the Women's Health Initiative randomized clinical trials. JAMA Oncology 2015; 1(5):611-621.

Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ. Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. New England Journal of Medicine 2003; 348(17):1625-1638.

Schmitz KH, Neuhouser ML, Agurs-Collins T, et al. Impact of obesity on cancer survivorship and the potential relevance of race and ethnicity. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2013; 105(18):1344-1354.

Paskett ED, Dean JA, Oliveri JM, Harrop JP. Cancer-related lymphedema risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and impact: a review. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2012; 30(30):3726-3733.

Gacci M, Sebastianelli A, Salvi M, et al. Role of abdominal obesity for functional outcomes and complications in men treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer: results of the Multicenter Italian Report on Radical Prostatectomy (MIRROR) study. Scandinavian Journal of Urology 2014; 48(2):138-145.

Meyerhardt JA, Tepper JE, Niedzwiecki D, et al. Impact of body mass index on outcomes and treatment-related toxicity in patients with stage II and III rectal cancer: findings from Intergroup Trial 0114. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2004; 22(4):648-657.

Teras LR, Kitahara CM, Birmann BM, et al. Body size and multiple myeloma mortality: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies. British Journal of Haematology 2014; 166(5):667-676.

Goodwin PJ, Segal RJ, Vallis M, et al. Randomized trial of a telephone-based weight loss intervention in postmenopausal women with breast cancer receiving letrozole: the LISA trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2014; 32(21):2231-2239.

Harrigan M, Cartmel B, Loftfield E, et al. Randomized trial comparing telephone versus in-person weight loss counseling on body composition and circulating biomarkers in women treated for breast cancer: The Lifestyle, Exercise, and Nutrition (LEAN) Study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2016; 34(7):669-676.

Goodwin PJ. Obesity and breast cancer outcomes: How much evidence is needed to change practice? Journal of Clinical Oncology 2016; 34(7):646-648. Epub 2015 Dec 28. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2015.64.7503.

Sheflin AM, Whitney AK, Weir TL. Cancer-promoting effects of microbial dysbiosis. Current Oncology Reports 2014; 16(10):406.

Sivan A, Corrales L, Hubert N, et al. Commensal Bifidobacterium promotes antitumor immunity and facilitates anti-PD-L1 efficacy. Science 2015; 350(6264):1084-1089.

Vtizou M, Pitt JM, Daillre R, et al. Anticancer immunotherapy by CTLA-4 blockade relies on the gut microbiota. Science 2015; 350(6264):1079-1084.

Barrington WE, Schenk JM, Etzioni R, et al. Difference in association of obesity with prostate cancer risk between US African American and non-Hispanic white men in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA Oncology 2015; 1(3):342-349.

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Obesity and Cancer Fact Sheet - National Cancer Institute

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